T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network


Pinus pinea (Stone pine)

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: Pinus
Species: P. pinea
Binomial name: Pinus pinea
Common name: Stone pine, Italian stone pine, Umbrella pine, Parasol pine

Pinus pinea is a pine species native to the Mediterranean region, occurring in Southern Europe, Israel, Lebanon and Syria.
Pinus pinea is a coniferous evergreen tree that can exceed 25 metres in height, but 12–20 metres is more typical. In youth, it is a bushy globe, in mid-age an umbrella canopy on a thick trunk, and, in maturity, a broad and flat crown over 8 metres in width. The bark is thick, red-brown and deeply fissured into broad vertical plates.
The flexible mid-green leaves are needle-like, in bundles of two, and are 10–20 centimetres long (exceptionally up to 30 centimetres). Young trees up to 5–10 years old bear juvenile leaves, which are very different, single (not paired), 2–4 centimetres long, glaucous blue-green; the adult leaves appear mixed with juvenile leaves from the fourth or fifth year on, replacing it fully by around the tenth year. Juvenile leaves are also produced in regrowth following injury, such as a broken shoot, on older trees.
Pinus pinea is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, and both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by wind.
The cones are broad, ovoid, 8–15 centimetres long, and take 36 months to mature, longer than any other pine. The seeds (pine nuts, piñones, pinhões, pinoli, or pignons) are large, 2 centimetres long, and pale brown with a powdery black coating that rubs off easily, and have a rudimentary 4–8 millimetres wing that falls off very easily. 

Pinus pinea has been cultivated extensively for at least 6,000 years for its edible pine nuts, which have been trade items since early historic times. The tree has been cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region for so long that it has naturalized, and is often considered native beyond its natural range.

Pinus pinea at the_Wellington Botanic Gardens.

The small tree below was growing wild on wasteland in New Plymouth.
 

Male cones accumulate extensively at the bases of long young shoots


Male cones and discharged pollen.


There are two needles per fascicle


Thanks to Wikipedia for text and information: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/