T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network


Euphorbia maculata (Spotted spurge)

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Euphorbia
Species: E. maculata
Binomial name: Euphorbia maculata
Synomyms: Chamaesyce maculata, Euphorbia supina
Common name: Spotted spurge, Creeping Spurge, Blotched Spurge, Spotted Sandmat, Milk Purslane.

Euphorbia maculata is an annual plant native to North America. It is was first common from the Waikato north but is now extending its range through out New Zealand.
It grows close to the ground, often forming a dense mat. It can establish itself in a variety of soils in sunny open areas such as gardens and lawns, and in sidewalk cracks. It reduces the growth of desirable plants. It can develop a central taproot up to 60 cm long.
Euphorbia maculata stems can grow up to 45 cm long along the ground. It has small oval leaves (>10mm) that are arranged in opposite pairs. Their margins are mildly serrated. The leaves are hairier on the underside and on the top side there is a maroon coloured spot in the center. In dry conditions they develop a purply tinge.
The flowers are very small, with four pinkish petals and consist only of stamens and pistils grouped in small, flower like cups, called cyathia, in the leaf axils (where the leaf joins the stem). 1 mm long seeds are formed in a three celled capsule.
The plant is poisonous and considered carcinogenic. Broken stems secrete a milky sap that is a mild skin irritant and can cause a rash in some people.
Euphorbia maculata can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed. It is recorded that sheep that have consumed as little as 0.62% of their body weight of this plant have died within a few hours.

A small plant


  

The pink hairy stems and flower buds


The leaves with serrated margins. Some plants leaves do not have maroon coloured spot in the center


Leaves with a maroon spot.
  

The hairy stems.


Thanks to Wikipedia for text and information: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/