T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network

Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyard grass)

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Genus: Echinochloa
Species: E. crus-galli
Binomial name: Echinochloa crus-galli
Synonyms: Echinochloa crus-galli subsp. spiralis, Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis, Echinochloa crus-galli var. mitis, Echinochloa spiralis, Panicum crus-galli, Panicum crus-galli var. mite
Common names: Barnyard grass, Cockspur, Cockspur grass, Barnyard millet, Japanese millet, Water grass, Common barnyard grass, 

Echinochloa crus-galli is an annual grass originating from Eurasia. It is considered one of the world's worst weeds and is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It reduces crop yields and causes forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock. It acts as a host for several mosaic virus diseases. Heavy infestations can interfere with mechanical harvesting.

Echinochloa crus-galli is a tall, tufted, vigorous, summer-active grass that can grow as tall as 150 cm. It has a fibrous root system but no rhizome.
It has long, bright-green leaves which are linear, very acute at the apex, leaf-blades are up to 65 cm long x 5-30 mm wide, usually glabrous, occasionally sparsely hirsute. There is no ligule at the base of the leaf blade and often reddish at the base.
The inflorescence is 5-25 cm long, erect, densely flowered and hairy. It forms a drooping and racemose panicle. The seed heads are a distinctive feature, green or purple in colour, with large millet-like seeds in crowded spikelets. Those at the base are longer than those at the top
Individual plants can produce up to 40,000 seeds per year. Water, birds, insects, machinery, and animal feet disperse it, but by contaminated seed is probably the most common dispersal method.




Thanks to Wikipedia for text and information: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0