T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network


Sophora microphylla (Kowhai)

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Sophora  (eight species)
Species: S.microphylla
Scientific name: Sophora microphylla
Synonyms: Edwardsia microphylla, Edwardsia grandiflora var. microphylla, Sophora tetraptera var. microphylla. 
Common name: Kowhai, South Island Kowhai,  Kowhai is the Maori word for yellow.

 Parts of this tree is poisonous, See text below.

Sophora microphylla is woody legume medium to a large tree in the genus Sophora and is native to New Zealand. It is the most common of the eight species. They can have a mature height of 8m.  It is endemic throughout the main islands of New Zealand but scarce in parts of Northland. In the wild, It is also scarce to absent over large parts of the eastern North Island from about East Cape south to the northern Wairarapa.  Sophora microphylla trees are now grown throughout the country and are a common feature in New Zealand gardens. It is our national flower. 
Sophora microphylla has smaller leaves (5–7 mm long by 3–4 mm wide) and flowers (2.5-3.5 cm long) than S. tetraptera which has leaves that are 1–2 cm long and flowers that are 3 cm-5 cm long and appear August -October.  
The very distinctive, almost segmented pods, which appear after flowering each contain six or more smooth, hard, yellow seeds. These seeds can be very numerous and the presence of many hundreds of these distinctively yellow seeds on the ground quickly identifies the presence of a nearby Kowhai tree. Many other Kowhai trees lose most of their leaves immediately after flowering in October or November but quickly produce new leaves. The native pigeon gorge themselves on both the flowers and the leaves. They can kill a tree with their constant nibbling.

Te ngahere-forest lore: When the bright yellow flowers of kowhai bloom, in late winter and early spring, it is time to plant kumara (sweet potato). Pigment for yellow dye was extracted from the flowers, and the flexible branches were good for making houses and bird snares.

All parts of the plant but especially the ripe yellow seed are poisonous. Because the seed is hard they will take a lot of chewing to cause harm. If the seed is crushed before eating it is more likely that they will cause harm. The major toxin is Cytisine and symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate, twitching of muscles or loss of coordination. The onset of these symptoms may occur within one hour. In extreme cases, symptoms include paralysis and respiratory failure.

Sophora microphylla is the only member of the genus that has a distinct juvenile form. In this form, it is a small leaved divaricating shrub. This form can exist for many years and can take 10 years to flower.





  





Flowers and last years seeds.


Sophora microphylla seeds and the seed pod


The juvenile form of Sophora microphylla growing at Pukekura Park, New Plymouth


The top surface of a juvenile leaf.

The underside of the juvenile leaf.

Sophora microphylla hybridises with all the other species except S. molloyi. 
The photo below is of a hybrid.  Note it is flowering while it has its leaves.

A cultivar of Sophora microphylla


Thanks to Wikipedia for text and information: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/