T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network

Quercus ilex (Holm oak)

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Q. ilex
Binomial name: Quercus ilex
Common name: Holm oak, Evergreen oak, Holly oak.

Quercus ilex is an evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. 
It is an evergreen tree of large size and can reach a height of 20+ m. It develops a large rounded crown. The trunk on old specimens can be sometimes over 6 m in girth. The tree’s young twigs are clothed with light brown felt like hairs. 
The tree’s small leathery leaves are simple and very variable in shape, >8 cm long, >3.5 cm wide, rounded or broadly tapered at the base and pointed. Young leaves are like holly leaves with mucronate or spinous teeth, whereas leaves on old trees have smooth margins. The leaves centre rib is straight and there are 7 to 11 pairs of side ribs. When quite young both surfaces of the leaves are clothed with whitish down, which soon falls away entirely from the upper surface leaving it a dark glossy green; on the lower surface, it turns grey or tawny in colour
Quercus ilex is monoecious. Monoecious plants have the 2 sexes on the same plant, with all individuals producing male pollen and female eggs and fruit. Quercus ilex fruits are called acorns and are produced one to three together on a short downy stalk. They mature in the same year of flowering. The acorns are usually 12–18 mm long. The acorns are covered for a third or half of their length by a cupola covered with appressed, downy scales.

An old tree growing in Kew Gardens, England

Young leaves holly-like leaves with mucronate or spinous teeth.

The acorns and their scaly cupola.

The tree bark.

Thanks to Wikipedia for text and information: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/