T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network


Coprosma grandifolia (Kanona)

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Rubioideae
Tribe: Anthospermeae
Genus: Coprosma
Species: C. grandifolia
Binomial name: Coprosma grandifolia
Synonym: Coprosma australis
Common names: Kanona, Rauekau,  Manono, Large-leaved coprosma,

Coprosma grandifolia is a native shrub or small tree with male and female flowers on separate trees. It has a slender trunk and hairless branches or branchlets. It’s widespread in both the North and South Islands in lowland to the mid-montane forest in wet and shaded areas, often around creeks where it can grow to 6 metres high. It is common on alluvial soils and often abundant in bush remnant regrowth after fencing. It can be epiphytic on tree fern trunks.
It has the largest leaves (15 cm long or more) of any New Zealand coprosma. The oval leaves have a raised midrib on the upper surface and there are domatia on the underside. The leaves have a distinct vein pattern often there is a mottled appearance on the leaf's top surface.
C. grandifolia produces ripe orangey-red drupes between February and May, and then flowers again during spring.
The tree’s inner bark is a vivid yellow/orange colour and was used as a dye by the early Maoris. The prepared bark was an important source of topical medicine for the Maoris.
For more information about the use of Kanona by early Maoris visit:
http://maoriplantuse.landcareresearch.co.nz/WebForms/PeoplePlantsDetails.aspx?firstcome=firstcome&PKey=CAF19704-4282-4D92-894A-9D31F03A921D

Female flowers.


Female flowers.(March)


Fruit on a female tree.


Male tree with flowers


Male flower buds.


The flowers opening.






A few fruit on a female tree. The leaves are showing the distinctive mottled appearance.






The leaves. Note the raised midrib.


Close up of the raise midrib on the top surface of a leaf.


The underside of a leaf. NB. small pits at the junction of veins
  

The domatium cavities on the underside of a leaf.
  

A photo of a glandular stipule (a small leaf-like outgrowth occurring at the base of a leaf) and the characteristic dark red blotches on it and the branch.

Thanks to Wikipedia for text and Information: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/