T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network


Phormium tenax (New Zealand Flax)

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Hemerocallidaceae
Genus: Phormium
Species: Phormium tenax
Common name: Harakeke, New Zealand flax

The plant grows as a clump of long, strap like leaves, up to two meters long, from which arises a much taller flowering shoot, with dramatic yellow or red flowers. The long leaf fibres have played an important role in the culture, history, and economy of New Zealand. It has been widely distributed to temperate regions of the world as economic fibre and ornamental plant. Phormium tenax is an evergreen perennial plant native to New Zealand and Norfolk Island. Harakeke was the name given to this plant by Maori. The first European traders called it "flax" because its fibres were similar to that of true flax found in other parts of the world. Though we still call it flax today harakeke is really a lily and is one of our oldest plant species.
A flax bush will often support a large community of animals, providing shelter and an extensive food resource. Tui, bellbirds, saddlebacks, short tailed bats, geckos and several types of insects enjoy nectar from the flax flower. Flax snails, a rare land snail living only in the Far North, often shelter under flax bushes. These snails don’t eat any part of the flax instead they munch on fallen leaves from native broadleaf trees. Many fascinating insects will go through their complete lifecycle on a flax plant without causing any harm to this plant.
Traditional uses of flax No fibre plant was more important to Maori than flax. Each pa or marae typically had a pa harakeke or flax plantation. Different varieties were specially grown for their strength, softness, colour and fibre content. Traditionally when harakeke leaves were removed from the plant, only the older leaves on the outside were taken. It is believed the three inner layers of the plant represented a family. This outer layer represented the grandparents, whereas the inner layer of new shoots or the child remained to be protected by the next inner layer of leaves, the parents. The uses of the flax fibre were numerous and varied. Clothing, mats, plates to eat off, baskets, ropes, bird snares, lashings, fishing lines and nets were all made from flax. Babies were even given rattles made from flax. Other parts of the plant were also used. Floats or rafts were made out of bundles of dried flower stalks (kokari). The abundant nectar from flax flowers was used to sweeten food and beverages.
Flax also had many medicinal uses. The sticky sap or gum that flax produces was applied to boils and wounds and used for toothache. Flax leaves were used in binding broken bones and matted leaves were used as dressings. Flax root juice was routinely applied to wounds as a disinfectant. Today, flax is used in soaps, hand crèmes, shampoos and a range of other cosmetics. Flax seed oil can also be found for sale.

Photographed March. Catlins.


Tui on flax