Blechnum fluviatile (Kiwakiwa)
Species: B. fluviatile
Binomial name: Blechnum fluviatile
Common names: Kiwakiwa, Star fern, Creek fern, kiwikiwi, kiwakiwa
Blechnum fluviatile is an herbaceous symmetrical fern like a starfish with ladder like fronds measuring up to 50 cm long. Growing in a distinctive ground-hugging rosette shape, its fertile fronds - dark brown and spiky - stand upright from the centre, while the drooping sterile fronds with their nearly round leaflets form the rosette.
As the parent plant ages it develops a short trunk central to a surrounding colony. It is a hardy small common ground fern which requires moist, shaded conditions for optimal growth.
Blechnum fluviatile is native to New Zealand and southeast Australia. This fern species occurs throughout much of New Zealand's forests.
Blechnum fluviatile see dark upright fertile fronds.
Photographed at Otira Wilton Bush Reserve
The top side of the sterile frond.
The underside of sterile frond.
Sori on a fertile frond.